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Air Fryers

Published May 2021

How we tested

Air fryers are all the rage, and for good reason. The best models cook food quickly and efficiently, and because they're essentially countertop convection ovens, they can be used in place of a toaster oven or wall oven. Our new favorite, the Instant Vortex Plus 6-Quart Air Fryer, can fit enough food for four people, has an easy-to-use basket that slides into the appliance like a drawer, and features intuitive digital controls.

What You Need to Know 

Despite their name, air fryers don’t fry your food. They’re essentially small convection ovens with powerful fans that circulate hot air around food to approximate the crisp and juicy results of deep frying. They require less oil—mere tablespoons, as opposed to quarts—and are less messy than deep frying. Air fryers are also marketed as a smaller and more convenient alternative to conventional ovens; they generally cook food quicker, shaving off 5 to 10 minutes from most recipes. They need to be preheated for only a few minutes, if at all, and they won’t heat up your entire kitchen. Even people who already have a convection oven may appreciate the speed, convenience, and extra cooking space that these appliances offer. Throughout years of testing air fryers, we’ve concluded that even the best models can’t achieve the perfect golden crispiness that deep frying offers, but some come impressively close. With a little finessing, some of our favorite oven and deep-fry recipes can work quite well in an air fryer

We tested three styles of air fryers: drawer-style models with baskets that pull out from the front; flip-top models with lids that lift up from the top to reveal the baskets inside; and bigger, cube-shaped models with doors that swing open in the front and multiple racks inside like an oven. The oven-style models often include revolving rotisserie baskets or propeller-shaped auto-stir attachments, both of which automatically rotate to toss food around, supposedly for more-even heating and crisping. After testing models with all sorts of innovations, we found an exciting new winner. Its capacity is bigger, it cooks better, and it costs less. What more could you want?

What to Look For

  • Drawer-Style Models: No matter the size or capacity of the air fryers we tested, the best results came from those with drawer-style frying baskets. Each had a single large handle that allowed us to easily maneuver the basket and shake it to redistribute food midway through cooking. This kept our hands away from the air fryers’ heating elements and gave us a place to hold the basket without using oven mitts. The baskets sat inside plastic or metal trays, which caught crumbs and debris for easy cleanup.
  • Wide Cooking Spaces: Just because an air fryer claims to have a larger capacity doesn’t mean that it has more usable cooking space. Since air-fried food cooks best in one layer, the width of an air fryer’s cooking surface mattered more than the height of its cooking space. We preferred one wide cooking surface to multiple racks for this reason. Our favorite models had cooking surfaces that measured more than 10 inches by 10 inches, offering enough room to accommodate recipes that serve up to four people.
  • Simple, Responsive Controls: Our top-performing models required only a couple pushes of a few buttons or turns of a single knob to operate. While we did like a few of the analog models, our favorites had digital controls, since we were less likely to accidentally knock digital controls when adding or removing food. Digital models were also more precise.
  • Nonstick Interiors: Frying baskets and crumb-catching trays with nonstick coatings were easy to clean, even when they were covered in cooked-on cheese or sticky sauces. Because air fryers generally can’t heat to more than 400 degrees, there’s no risk of the nonstick coatings getting hot enough to release toxic fumes.
  • Auto-Pause Timers: For the best results when cooking in an air fryer, you need to remove the basket or racks and shake, flip, or turn food as it cooks. We preferred models whose timers automatically paused when we opened the doors or lids and resumed when we closed them. This saved us from having to push another button to continue cooking, which was easy to forget.
  • Automatic Shutoff: The best models in our lineup also shut off automatically at the end of the programmed cooking cycle, ensuring that food didn’t overcook if it lingered in the machine for a few extra minutes. Another perk: We didn’t have to remember to turn off the models. 

What to Avoid

  • Air-Fryer Ovens: All the oven-style models we tested were difficult to use and produced lackluster results. They had bigger footprints but couldn't actually fit much more food inside. Having multiple levels of racks didn't work well in any of the air fryers we tested. The upper rack blocked heat from reaching the lower rack, resulting in unevenly cooked food. Despite our efforts to manage this uneven heating by switching and rotating the racks, the food never finished cooking at the same time. And because the cooking racks and baskets didn't have handles, we had to use oven mitts. Crumbs and drips fell through the perforations in the racks and onto the floor of the ovens or, more frustratingly, onto our kitchen floor. They were also a pain to clean; crumbs stuck to their bases and hinges and were impossible to remove. 
  • Flip-Top Models: Most air fryers with flip-tops had heating elements in their lids that were completely exposed when the unit was open—and their heavy lids threatened to drop those heating elements right onto our hands. We also found some flip-top models to be inconveniently large. When we flipped them open, they wouldn’t fit under our cabinets. 
  • Rotisserie and Auto-Stir Attachments: A few models came with rotisserie baskets (barrel-shaped mesh cages) or frying baskets with propeller-shaped auto-stir attachments. Both accessories were designed to agitate the food, thus eliminating the need for manually shaking the baskets midcook, a common air-fryer requirement. But they were fussy to use and didn't make better food (and in some cases, they made things worse).
  • Sharp-Edged Baskets and Racks: A few models had wire cooking racks and/or baskets with sharp edges that trapped sticky foods, shredded our sponges, and ensnared the bristles of our scrub brushes.

Other Considerations

  • Preheating: Unlike conventional ovens, many air fryers don’t require preheating. Just pop in the food and press a few buttons. However, a few newer models we tested—including our winner—do recommend preheating. They took only about 2 minutes to reach 400 degrees, as opposed to the 10 to 15 minutes it takes to heat oil for deep frying or preheat a conventional oven. Preheating an air fryer for a mere 2 minutes offers an advantage: It ensures that the frying basket is hot when the food touches it, allowing for faster and more-even cooking. One important note: None of the recipes we developed for our cookbook Air Fryer Perfection calls for preheating, but they'll still work well in a model that uses a preheat cycle. 


  • What Size Air Fryer Should I Buy? We liked a few smaller air fryers with stated capacities of about 3 quarts. They cooked food evenly and efficiently and were easy to use and clean. The catch is that they hold only enough food for two people. If you want a larger air fryer, you need to shop carefully. We found that the external dimensions and stated capacities of air fryers are not reliable indications of how much food they can cook at once; most extra-large models can still really cook only a pound of fries or two chicken cutlets. However, our winner—the Instant Vortex Plus 6-Quart Air Fryer—holds twice as much food as the other models in our lineup. It’s also only 1 inch taller and 1 inch wider than our favorite smaller models (and also roughly $100 less expensive). We think there’s no downside to buying this larger air fryer, even if you’re routinely cooking for only two people.
  • What Surprising Things Can I Cook in an Air Fryer? Just because it’s called an air “fryer” doesn't mean that it produces only crispy, “fried” food. You can do much more than crisp up french fries and fish sticks—though air fryers do a great job of that. We’ve found that you can cook hearty main dishes such as crab cakes and glazed salmon and vegetable sides such as brussels sprouts and butternut squash. We were even able to roast a whole chicken in our winner. 
  • Do I Need to Add Oil to an Air Fryer? Some form of fat is helpful in almost all cooking; it conducts heat and amplifies flavor. Many frozen fried foods such as frozen french fries or chicken nuggets have already been cooked in oil. It’s not necessary to add oil to these foods when cooking them in an air fryer, but a small amount of added oil could help them get crispier. When cooking fresh foods in an air fryer, it’s usually necessary to add a little oil, but just a few teaspoons is generally sufficient.
  • How Do I Clean My Air Fryer? The most important things to remember about cleaning your air fryer are to never submerge the main body of the appliance in water and to avoid getting the heating element wet. You can clean the removable parts of an air fryer with warm, soapy water and a sponge. You can wipe down the interior as well.

Recipes to Get You Started: Get the most out of your air fryer with these delicious, rigorously tested recipes. 


Rating Criteria

Cooking: We tested how evenly and quickly the air fryers could cook commonly fried foods, such as french fries, and our own recipes designed for air fryers, such as Air-Fryer Chicken Parmesan.

Safety: We considered whether models had safety features, including concealed heating elements and a body that stayed cool enough to touch during cooking. We noted if they automatically shut off once the cooking cycle had ended, reducing the possibility of burning food. 

Capacity: We evaluated how much food each model could hold and cook properly.

Ease of Use: We rated the air fryers on how easy they were to maneuver, cook in, and clean, as well as how simple their controls were to operate.

The Results


Design Trifecta 360 Knife Block

Admittedly expensive, this handsome block certainly seemed to live up to its billing as “the last knife block you ever have to buy.” The heaviest model in our testing, this block was ultrastable, and its durable bamboo exterior was a breeze to clean. Well-placed medium-strength magnets made it easy to attach all our knives, and a rotating base gave us quick access to them. One tiny quibble: The blade of our 12-inch slicing knife stuck out a little.


Schmidt Brothers Downtown Block

This roomy block completely sheathed our entire winning knife set using just one of its two sides—and quite securely, thanks to long, medium-strength magnet bars. Heavy, with a grippy base, this block was very stable. An acrylic guard made this model extra-safe but also made it a little trickier to insert knives and to clean; the wood block itself showed some minor cosmetic scratching during use.


Schmidt Brothers Midtown Block

This smaller version of the Downtown Block secured all our knives nicely, though the blade of the slicing knife stuck out a bit. With a base lined with grippy material, this block was very stable. An acrylic guard afforded extra protection against contact with blades but made it a little harder to insert knives and to clean; the wood itself got a little scratched during use.

Recommended with Reservations

Swissmar Bamboo Magnetic Knife Block

This small, scratch-resistant model had a stable, rubber-lined base and could hold all our knives, though the blade of the 12-inch slicing knife stuck out a bit. But inch-long gaps between its small magnets made coverage uneven and forced us to find the magnetic hot spots in order to secure the knives. Its acrylic guard made it safer to use but harder to insert knives and to clean.

Not Recommended

Messermeister Walnut Magnet Block

This handsome block was done in by its shape—a tippy, top-heavy quarter-circle that wasn’t tall or broad enough to keep the blades of three knives from poking out. It lacked a nonslip base, and its extra-strong magnets made it unnerving to attach or remove our heavy cleaver. Finally, it got a bit scratched after extensive use.


Epicurean Standing Knife Rack 12"

This magnetic block sheathed all our knives completely, though with a bit of crowding. But it was hard to insert each knife without hitting the block’s decorative slats on way down, and because the block was light and narrow, it wobbled when bumped. Worse, we couldn’t take it apart, so splatters that hit the interior were there to stay. Additionally, the outside stained easily, and when we wiped it down, the unit smelled like wet dog.


Kapoosh Rondelle Knife Block

This model stabilized knives with a mass of stiff, spaghetti-like bristles that shed and nicked easily after extensive use, covering our knives with plastic debris. While all our knives fit securely, several of the blades stuck out, making this unit feel less safe overall. Finally, though the bristles could be removed and cleaned in the dishwasher, their nooks and crannies made this block hard to wash by hand.


Kuhn Rikon Vision Knife Block, Clear

This plastic block required us to aim each knife into the folds of an accordion-pleated insert that was removable for easy cleaning but got nicked easily with repeated use. Because we could only insert the knives vertically, longer knife blades stuck out; a cleaver was too wide to fit. The lightest model in our lineup, this block was dangerously top-heavy when loaded with knives.